As a follow-up to Fund81’s previous podcast episode “Venture Fund Terms 101”, this episode tackles some of the more advanced venture fund legal terms. As an emerging venture fund manager, I’ve found that gaining an understanding of fund document terms has been a bit like learning a foreign language. In this episode, my guest, Mark Weakley, helps us navigate some of the more complicated terms.
Mark is a partner at the international law firm, Bryan Cave. Mark leads the firm’s Technology, Entrepreneurial, and Commercial Practice and is the co-leader of the firm’s Private Fund Group. I have worked with Mark for more than six years. He represented me as an angel investor and has been our attorney at MergeLane since the very beginning. Mark and his team have drafted the documents for all of our funds.
For those of you who are new to venture investing, I suggest reading these definitions before listening to the episode.
General Partner (GP): GPs are the managers of the fund. They raise the fund capital from LPs and serve as the managers of the funds, conducting due diligence and providing support for each of the fund’s investments.
Limited Partner (LP): LPs are investors in venture capital funds. Common examples of LPs include fund of funds, accredited investors, endowments, and pension funds.
Venture Partners: Venture Partners provide supplemental support to the GPs. They are typically experienced professionals who are engaged to add specific expertise or part-time assistance. Common examples include technology experts, retired CEOs or entrepreneurs, and experienced angel investors (investors who invest as individuals rather than through a fund).
Carry: Carried Interest, or carry, is a share of the fund’s profit paid to the fund managers if a specific threshold return (hurdle rate) is exceeded. This performance-based compensation is meant to align the Fund Managers with their capital providers (LPs).
*Context: In exchange for investing capital on behalf of the investors and managing the fund, VC firms typically charge management fees and carried interest on a percentage of the profits made on fund investments. This typically takes the form of a 2 and 20 model, meaning the firm will charge 2% of the total fund size per year for management fees (operations, legal, salary) and 20% of the fund carry.
Preferred Return: Preferred return refers to the threshold return that the limited partners of a fund must receive prior to the fund managers receiving their carry.
Vesting: Vesting gives rights to assets over time. For startups, this usually takes the form of earning common stock or access to an employee stock option plan over time. For venture funds, it is typically applied to earning carry over time. Vesting offers an incentive to perform well and remain within the company.
Organizational Expenses: Organizational expenses are related to establishing and organizing the fund and its infrastructure. This includes things like accounting, legal, fundraising-related travel, and other expenses.
Fractional Shares: A fractional share is a share of equity that is less than one full share. In the case of a merger or acquisition, the combined new common stock shares often are calculated by using a predetermined ratio. Shareholders will usually receive a fractional share of the new common stock or cash in lieu of the fractional shares.
Reinvestment Cap: A reinvestment cap limits the amount of proceeds from a sale or other disposition of investments a GP may reinvest into the fund during the specified investment period.
Clawback: A clawback provision is an adjustment payment made by a GP to the fund for receiving more than the GP’s pre-agreed share of fund proceeds. This means that the GP is not entitled to keep distributions representing more than a specified percentage of the fund's cumulative profits. Clawbacks are typically utilized when unexpected expenses arise after the GP has received a carry distribution.
Carried Interest Clawback: A carried interest clawback allows LPs to recoup carry paid to GPs during the life of the fund in order to normalize the final carry to the originally agreed upon percentage. The clawback provision protects the LPs if carry paid on one investment does not exceed subsequent investment losses.
Waterfall: The waterfall is a pre-agreed upon economic arrangement that dictates how distributions are prioritized between a fund’s GPs and LPs. Waterfall provisions typically dictate that GPs receive carried interest only once capital contributions (the amount the LPs invest in the fund) and preferred return on realized investments are returned to investors.
ILPA: In the interview, Mark mentions the Institutional Limited Partners Association (ILPA). This organization offers several resources for both GPs and LPs.
In this Fund81 podcast episode, we talk about something that has made our team at MergeLane better investors - the Enneagram Personality Typing System. To talk about how the Enneagram can help other VCs, I invited Kaley Klemp to join the podcast.
As a venture capitalist, I am frequently surrounded by exceptionally high-performing and inspiring people. Until recently, I had never stopped to think about the impact of that.
We are big proponents of using the 15 Commitments in the work we do in Conscious Leadership. However, as an Enneagram Type 1 who is most happy at maximum productivity, I’ve always had a hard time buying into Commitment #9, the commitment to play and rest. Until yesterday….
I am extremely disciplined and focused. However, this can also be a detriment. Anything I perceive as a distraction from my to-do list feels stressful, and I have to constantly tell myself that off-the-to-do-list opportunities are often the best opportunities. I was recently reminded of that.
For the final episode of Fund81's first season, I interviewed Jaclyn Freeman Hester from Foundry Group. As someone relatively new to the industry, she has a fresh perspective on what's compelling to institutional investors and an incredible pulse on the landscape for emerging VC managers. Enjoy!
I’m trying to focus my time on opportunities to operate in my zone of genius and a few select priority areas in line with my passions and in which I feel I can make the most impact, aka my true north. To help all of us stay the course, I thought it might be helpful to share those priorities.
I gave first without question for almost five years. It came back to me in spades. I don’t regret it, and I think it was exactly the right thing for me to do at the time. But then….it just got to be too much.
Dave Balter, the CEO of one of our MergeLane portfolio companies, Flipside Crypto, shares his perspective on investing in the cryptocurrency space. Dave is obsessed with and extremely knowledgeable about cryptocurrency, and has an interesting perspective from both sides of the table.
Most venture capital funds target a minimum ownership percentage when making investments. In this Fund81 episode, Amish Jani, a founder and Managing Director of FirstMark Capital, shares his take on why ownership matters and how funds of different sizes and strategies determine ownership targets.
Venture capital funds are typically structured to have a 10-year lifespan, but venture-backed companies often take more than 10 years to achieve an exit and return capital to their investors. In this Fund81 podcast episode, we discuss solutions to this problem with our our guest, Roland Reynolds.